1On the significance of the Donatist controversy in the history of Christian thought, see J. Pelikan, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600) (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971), 307-18.

2Luther’s Works, 26. 55.

3On the worship of angels in the Colossian heresy, see R. R. Melick, Jr., Philippians, Colossians, Philemon, NAC (Nashville: Broadman, 1991), 32:269-72.

4Thus the rendering of the NEB, “Let him be outcast!,” is far too weak to do justice to the gravity of Paul’s language. As R. Y. K. Fung ( Galatians , 47) observes: “it thus more likely means being delivered up and devoted to the judicial wrath of God.” Cf. C. Jordan’s colloquial rending: “Now get this straight: Even if we or an angel fresh out of heaven preaches to you any other message that the one we preached to you–to hell with him!” ( The Cotton Patch Version of Paul’s Epistles [New York: Association, 1968], 94)

5IQS 2.5-17 in G. Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls in English (New York: Penguin, 1987), 63.