As we find in the book of Job and all wisdom literature antecedent to the incarnation, death, burial, and resurrection of Christ, the writer of Ecclesiastes seeks to tie the particular events of this life together by some larger purpose. When viewed in light only of the particulars that come under our observation we are left with mystery, frustration, emptiness, and eventual cynical detachment or ascription to superstition and false deities. True wisdom will go beyond intellectual challenges and the quest for significance and present comfort and happiness and find that the problem is neither intellectual nor existential but fundamentally one of virtue and absolute morality. We are guilty violators of an eternal moral code sustained by an infinitely glorious being; either we will deservedly suffer commensurate consequences for our evil or a ransom will be provided.
I. The writer establishes his identity and his qualifications to write about the emptiness of all that is in the world when the world is viewed as an end in itself
.A. He is a king, in
B. He was not weighed down with conflict, but had greater possessions than any before him including David, and had leisure and sufficient wealth to do everything his superior intelligence could devise.: 1:13, 16; 2:9, 12
C. He knew that after him the only possibility was for decline and dissolution of all that he had accomplished. (2:18, 19) Compare 1 Kings 11:11-13; 12:1-24
D. He valued intelligence and the ability to reflect on the meaning of all the particular events of human industry, art, and the pursuit of pleasure, but knows that it could only lead to cynicism if isolated from a larger wisdom than itself. (1:18; 2:14, 15; 12:9-12). This is an unusual piece of literature in the canon of Scripture. Here we find a man that is wise give himself to temporality of all sorts with the intent of having empirical evidence that vanity is all that can be expected from a life given over solely to personal gain and pleasure. He engages in foolishness for the sake of wise observation. He uses himself as a guinea pig for an experiment.
E. It is difficult to conclude that this is anyone but Solomon
II. Verses 1-4 – This preacher draws the conclusion of all his investigations before he displays the wild variety of options he has investigated. This conclusion is sub-final to that drawn in chapter 12, but shows the futility of finding ultimate satisfaction even in the most superior and extravagant of worldly accomplishments. The meat that perishes, and indeed all that is strictly of this world perishes, is not worth our ultimate concern; only the meat that endures to eternal life can give true prosperity.
A. He leaves nothing out of his observation of vanity. Everything is like a vapor, said the Preacher of this book. Many times the things that one accumulates will last beyond him for even one’s life is but a vapor (James 4:14). If the accumulations of the ages do not perish before the Day, at that time, “the heavens will pass away with a roar, and the heavenly bodies will be burned up and dissolved, and the earth and the works that are done on it will be exposed” (2 Peter 3:10). The person that lifts up his soul to these things (Psalm 24:4) will suffer loss on that day when the corruptions of this world are eliminated.
B. Labor with an eye to worldly gain cannot endure. If one labors for the finest of material things, every moment of enjoying them will pass as they pass, and when the moment is gone it is no more; if one labors for the approval of this age and does not have an eye to the glory of God in all he does, then his reward will be fully manifest in this age, and that only for a short while until his accomplishment is superseded by another.
C. The labors and glory of an entire generation soon will be past. Nothing is final in itself but only a stepping stone to a more splendid accomplishment. “The earth remains forever” means from the perspective of the successive generations of the sons of men it continues to stay even though they pass. It will all be burned up and will give way to a new heaven and a new earth, but this earth will not perish before the final generation of mankind has lived its last day in time before the onset of eternity.
Verses 5-7 – The writer gives examples of the regularity of the motions and rhythm of the earth. These things continue since the creation, have been so from generation to generation. And will not cease. This powerful regularity and the cause and effect, predictably reasonable relationship established by divine wisdom has led some to believe in the impossibility of an interruption in this process by what the Bible calls signs or miracles, such as the parting f the Red Sea, the turning of water into wine, the multiplication of the loaves and fishes, the impregnation of a virgin, or the resurrection of dead person. Peter refers to such persons in 2 Peter 3: “They will say, ‘Where is the promise of his coming? For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all things are continuing as they were from the beginning of creation.” Those in Peter’s writing say so in scoffing at the predictions of a judgment to come; others do it to render incredible the biblical assertion of the the origin of the earth by divine power, its continuance by that same word of power, and its final demise and renovation according to the divine will and power. The writer of Ecclesiastes does not deny those things, but shows that if we measure our significance in terms of earthly things, we will achieve nothing, for the cycles of the earth will endure far beyond our short occupation of this place and our presence will have changed nothing.
The cycle of the earth sun relationship of day and night and those alteration of the earth’s seasons dependent on it were established in the beginning and will continue to the end (Genesis 1:14-19; 8:22). It seems that well-defined seasons were not established until after the flood and the alteration of the earth’s atmosphere.
Wind dynamics such as the jet stream and other interactive air currents continue and provide the amazing variety of weather patterns experienced on earth; they transcend any human generation and witness to the consistent but wildly variegated providence and sustaining power of God.
Water also witnesses to the constancy and breadth of providential arrangements of the natural order. Water is maintained at a virtually equal level throughout history, but moving from one place to another through the process of evaporation, distillation, and condensation, keeping rain falling on the earth, the streams and rivers flowing to the ocean, and the ocean giving back, never filling, because of the constant process of evaporation. It is fascinating but unchallengeable. The process will last far beyond the life span of any generation and will see the rising and falling of cultures, empires, brilliant men, and represents a more profound and ingenious mechanism that the most advanced technology of any inventive age.
2. Verses 8-11 – One can find no meaning in the accomplishments of human ingenuity and observation when it yields only a manifestation of those things are observable in nature, or a harnessing of the potentialities resident in the natural order, both personal and impersonal.
Neither the eye nor the ear can find satisfaction in any of the sensory experiences that come day by day. A work of art seen may give a sense of wonder but can not end the need for more experiences of art. Symphonies and great choral works enter the emotions through the ears but, once heard, must be replenished or replaced by other such experiences. We yearn for more satisfaction in our situation in this world than the world is capable of giving. This sense of futility sets the stage for the affirmation of the prophet, “From of old no one has heard or perceived by the ear, no eye has seen a God besides you, who acts for those who wait for him.” (Isaiah 64:4) Paul has both these texts in view as he reminds the Corinthians, “’What no eye has seen, nor ear heard, not the heart of man imagined, what God has prepared for those who love him’—these things God has revealed to us through the Spirit.” (1 Corinthians 2:9, 10). Empirical investigation can yield only knowledge of this world, but truly satisfying knowledge is given only be revelation, that is, the knowledge of God in his infinite mercy to such vain and sinful creatures as we are.
Augustine’s City of
III. Verses 12-18 – The man who knew too much.
A. He tells of his strategy to “to seek and search out by wisdom” every possible activity of man. His short conclusion about the attempt is “It is an unhappy business that God has given to the children of man to be busy with.” He expands this experience in 2:1-8
B. He affirms that he had in fact exhausted every possible option for discovering, within the ongoing activities of this world, the answer to a human quest for satisfying happiness and again asserts, “All is vanity and a striving after wind.” He expands this experience in 2:9-11.
C. He used every resource of his wisdom and understanding to evaluate even the relative usefulness of the polarities of wisdom and folly, and, when seen as an activity of man in the context of a closed universe, he saw both of these as striving after wind. He expands this experience in 2:12-17
IV. Chapter 2 – The description of Solomon’s attempt to give a rational exploration of every conceivable human avenue to meaning
A. chapter 2, verses 1-8 – Solomon gave his virtually inexhaustible wealth and his superior intelligence and understanding to an empirical investigation of every activity of man to discern what, if any, among them would produce a lasting sense of satisfaction and fulfilling purpose (“Till I might see what was good for the children of man to do under heaven during the few days of their life.” 2:3). Note that in this relentless quest to push to the limits of human experience (“whatever my eyes desired I did not keep from them”2:10)) he professes that his evaluation is intentionally guided by wisdom: “my heart still guided me with wisdom” (2:3) “Also my wisdom remained with me” (2:9)
1. He sought meaning through laughter and pleasure and found it vain.
2. He sought fulfillment in wine and folly – presumably this “folly” is particularly connected with a life of inebriation, the kind of folly that puts life on hold by an artificial disconnection from day by day responsibilities. The cloud of pressure and consistent responsibility is ignored and replaced with foolish quest for exhilaration.
3. He surrounded himself with marvels of natural beauty surrounding exquisite dwelling places. If a well-designed house and beautiful landscaping could bring happiness, then Solomon would have found it in optimum doses.
4. Humans that were at his beck and call both for labor and for pleasure tended to all the needs of his massive and multiplying estate as well as his own purposefully insatiable grasp for pleasure and entertainment. Men and women slaves, full choruses of singers and concubines populated his kingly dwellings. His eyes, his ears, and his flesh never lacked the opportunity for immediate fulfillment whenever he desired.
5. Material possession of livestock and rare and precious metals superabounded as he took advantage of his power and international relations to multiply (“the treasure of kings and provinces”) every conceivable sign of dominance and preeminence in opulence.
B. Verses 9-11 – Solomon was a one man wonder of the world. After 2 Chronicles 2-7 described the process of building and dedicating the
C. Verses 12-17 – This experimenter with life turns to consider the relative values of wisdom and folly. By wisdom here he does not mean that ultimate wisdom that consists of a knowledge of God and delight in all his ways, but the ability to discern the most productive ways of negotiating human relationships and making the most of personal gifts and opportunities. By folly, he means, not necessarily the pleasure seeking superficiality mentioned above (verse 3), but the failure to apply oneself with foresight and energy to the affairs of daily life and personal relationships.
1. He learns that wisdom makes a person get ahead in this life and accomplish things that are pleasing and to discern the most profitable paths for gain. “There is more gain in wisdom than in folly.” It is better to walk in light than stumble in darkness when one is seeking to find a life that has ample provision for sustaining friendship and the necessary food and raiment. As in Proverbs 24, the sluggard fool has his vineyard overgrown with thorn bushes and its protective wall is broken down.
2. But in the end, if one’s wisdom has all been consumed in the pursuit of earthly advantage only, when death comes the wise man is not different from the fool. “How the wise dies just like the fool!” When the wise man observes this reality, he concludes that even wisdom, oriented only to this age, “also is vanity.” So meaningless does all this seem that the writer said, “So, I hated life.” Such is the conclusion when even wisdom is pursued with only a temporal goal in mind.
D. Verses 18-23 – Solomon realized that all the ingenuity concentrated on the elaborate lifestyle and the opulent possessions soon would be a matter of deep frustration. Though his toil and wisdom built and sustained this empire of impressive proportions, soon one that did not have his abilities would become heir of them; then what would happen. A person of less abilities will not be able to maintain that which depended on the peculiar wisdom and power of Solomon. Even these great accomplishments were temporal. Even the
E. Verses 24-26 – The first acknowledgement of the place of God in transforming the view that we take of earthly things. We should enjoy all that God has given us in the context of its temporality and use it for the most temporal joy it affords, but constantly seek its usefulness for eternal things. Ecc. 2:24-26 See also 3:9-13; 5:18-20; 8:15; 10:17. See New Testament instructions about riches and earthly things and their proper enjoyment in 1 Timothy 4:3, 4; Phil 4:12; Luke 12:13 (rich fool) Luke 16:1-3 (unjust steward)