The mighty work of the Holy Spirit through the ministry of the apostles continued. The death of Ananias and Sapphira for lying to the Holy Spirit had been followed by “many sign and wonders” regularly performed among the people. The work of regeneration continued as “multitudes of men and women” were added to the church as believers. Healing and exorcisms were regular and plentiful, even accomplished through the passing of the shadow of Peter over the sick who were laid close to the path where he would pass. Influenced both by the deaths of Ananias and Sapphira and the rising hostility of the Jewish leadership, the population in general kept their distance from the apostolic fellowship although they held the believers in high esteem. Finally, the great hubbub about Jesus so irritated the religious leaders that they arrested the apostles, apparently all twelve, and imprisoned them.
I. A Miraculous release and faithful proclamation – Verses 19-26
A. An angel opened the doors and brought them out. Their opening of the doors did not raise any alarm and apparently the guards were kept from seeing this event. At the break of day the guards were in place and the doors were shut, but the prisoners gone (13).
B. Angels had rolled the stone from the tomb of Jesus and announced to the visitors to the tomb that Jesus was risen. They had appeared at the ascension of Jesus, had questioned the people about their standing and gazing, and announced that “this same Jesus” would return. Now they released the apostles and instructed them to go stand in the temple and preach, ”the words of this life.” As Hebrews says (1:14), angels are “ministering spirits sent out to serve for the sake of those who are to inherit salvation.”
C. In response, the apostles followed the angel’s command and at daybreak began to teach the people that were gathering there. The preeminence of this message calls for radical measures for its proclamation. We should never lose the sense of urgency connected with the events that constitute its core (the death, burial, resurrection of Christ, and his return in glory), and that prompted the angels to give this release for the purpose of continued preaching.
D. Upon the discovery that their intentions of putting a quick end to the proclamation of Jesus, the resurrection, and his evident messiahship, a sense of desperation began to overwhelm the Sanhedrin. Note two things.
1. Verse 24 indicates their great perplexity “wondering what this would come to.” They had been expressing their mode of panic since early in the ministry of Jesus, plotting to kill him for the sake of maintaining the security of their place and power in their political arrangement with
2. As they went to regather the apostles to bring them to the Jewish authorities, they had to deal gently for “they were afraid of being stoned by the people.” This same dynamic occurred during their times of seeking a way to arrest Jesus (Mark 14:1, 2, 49; Luke 22:1, 2;52, 53). The “people” seemed to make more candid evaluations of what was occurring than the religious leaders who were blinded by their false religious assumptions (See John 9:24-34 for an individual example of this irony).
II. A Stern warning and a faithful response – Verses 27-32.
A. The high priest upbraided them for their disobedience to their previous warning (Acts 4:17, 18), and opened up one of the chief reasons for their fear—that it might be made clear that indeed they had manipulated justice and had killed, not only an innocent man, but the very Messiah: “You intend to bring this man’s blood upon us.” Peter and the apostles did exactly that (Acts 2:23; 3:15; 4:10). Had the facts as reported in the apostolic preaching not been true, the Jewish leaders had every reason and abundant opportunity to disprove the truthfulness of the central doctrinal idea of their proclamation—the resurrection. All they must do is produce the body, but they are reduced to the tactic of intimidation.
B. Even as the high priest repeated his warning, so Peter and the apostles repeated their commission, “We must obey God rather than men” (29).
1. The events of 4:18, 19 and 5:28, 29 give a clear contrast between the sphere of the
2. The point made by Peter is that humans misperceive their legitimate sphere of authority and claim too much to themselves. Truth transcends the temporary interests of any earthly institution. The
3. The “charge” of the priest (28), seeking to control his very limited sphere of influence, contradicted the command of Christ, to whom was given all power, to go into all the world to the end of the age (Matthew 28:18-20).
4. At the point of this contradiction only, did Peter and the apostles feel the necessity of disobedience and so obey God “rather than” man. He did not reject human authority in spheres reserved for their administration. Human authority has an appropriate place in matters of public justice, peace, and protection (Romans 13:1-7; 1 Peter 2:13-17). In the sphere of eternal truth and matters of the
5. They took advantage of this detention to preach again. In this short record of Peter’s (and the other apostles’) answer we find a full presentation of gospel truth, both from its objective provision as well as its subjective manifestation.
They identify themselves with the Sanhedrin by saying “the God of our Fathers.” The God of whom they speak is the God who chose
Note the internal contrast of Peter’s statement. The God of Israel showed his regard of Jesus by raising him from the dead, exalting him to his right hand, and making him the Leader (or Prince, or the Beginner as in Hebrews 12:2, “the author” of faith) and Savior. The Sanhedrin showed their evaluation by killing him by hanging him on a tree. This particular manner of death, put graphically by Peter, is reminiscent of Deuteronomy 21:22, 23 as the execution of a man accursed. It is used again by Peter in 1 Peter 2:24 and by Paul in Galatians 3:13. It is peculiarly in this manner of death, pursued aggressively by the leaders and at the same time providentially arranged by God, that Jesus is made Savior. Look at this same way of presentation in Acts 2:23 and 4:27, 28.
“To give repentance to
6. “We are witnesses and so is the Holy Spirit.” Again we find two things present in the saving witness to the truth.
First is the apostolic witness. Their observation of these things to which they testify, their preaching of them under the authority of Christ’s commission to them, and their writing that provides a foundation for the intrinsic credibility of the historical message, all constitute their witness.
The Holy Spirit gave revelation of the true meaning of the events of Christ’s life and teaching, inspired the apostles both in the manner of speech and the content of their writing, and impresses, illumines, and recreates the soul to convince of the truth and to provide the ground for the reception of it. He prepares the good soil for a fruitful reception of the sower’s seed. (Matthew 13:8, 23).
To those who obey him” – The trait that distinguishes those who have forgiveness and are recipients of the work of the Spirit from those that don’t is hearty obedience to the apostolic message (See 1 Peter 1:22, 23).
III. An Irrational response and wise counsel – Verses 33-39
A. Upon hearing their presentation, the Jewish leaders wanted to kill the apostles. This was because the apostles’ resolution and the content of their message contradicted both the authority and the theology of most of these leaders. It called into question their knowledge of the God of Israel by saying that they had judged in a way opposite to him. Also it seemed to give an empirical way to affirm the truth of resurrection of the body and the continued consciousness of the human spirit after death, ideas rejected by the Sadducees.
B. Gamaliel, a Pharisee, calmed them down and led them to think more rationally. Hearing their message of resurrection probably appealed to him and he was more deliberate in considering evidence and arguments in the context of competing discourse. He set forth a way by which the truth of their claims might be judged and, if false, gave some hope that the movement would die of itself and not prompt another series of executions. “Men of
1. Gamaliel reminded them of two uprisings, one led by Theudas and another by Judas the Galilean.
2. He reminded them of similar outcomes to these uprisings following soon on the death of the leader.
The leader was killed.
The followers soon dispersed implying that without his inspiration and instruction the energy and definition for the movement was gone.
Likewise, if this movement had a similar dynamic, its claims and goal soon will dissipate and the body of followers will vanish.
If, however, these radical claims of resurrection and exaltation are true, then it is a dangerous thing to oppose it for it is of God. You might, even as they have suggested in their answer to you, find yourself fighting against God. That is a losing battle for sure, my fellow Israelites!
3. Surely Luke inserted this reasoning of Gamaliel to prompt the reader to a reflection on the evidence. If a movement that depended solely on the claims to a resurrection found that this resurrection had not occurred, they would not hazard their lives for the delusion. If, however, the resurrection did occur, and Jesus did appear to them and give them instructions to testify, and did send the Holy Spirit to empower their message, and did promise them eternal life, then their faithfulness to death would not be irrational or a deceitful masquerade.
IV. Punishment that prompts Praise – Verses 40-42
A. The Jews dropped their plans to kill them, but beat them, commanded them not to preach, and let them go. Even this action shows how filled with blinding spite were these haters of the Way. They would let them go but not without a sound drubbing and a malicious exertion of authority. They could not bear their confident and clear proclamation of the name of Jesus.
B. The response of the Apostles gives evidence of the truth of their proclamation.
1. When they left the presence of the council, they rejoiced that for the name of Jesus they had suffered this recrimination and dishonor. In reality it was verification of their changed lives and the infinite worthiness of the call to serve such a Savior as Christ. “For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you might follow in his steps. He committed no sin, neither was deceit found in his mouth. When he was reviled, he did not revile in return; when he suffered he did not threaten, but continued entrusting himself to him who judges justly” (1 Peter 2:21-23).
2. Showing their true commitment to the Lordship of Christ, “Every day, in the temple and from house to house, they did not cease teaching and preaching Jesus as the Christ.” They did not for a moment entertain any doubt about the reality of Jesus of Nazareth, his death, burial and resurrection and his commission to them. They were setting forth a way of true life both here and hereafter that conformed to the glory and power of God. It was to make its way, not by the sword or force, but by the proclamation of truth and a willingness to suffer.